Thursday, July 13, 2017

DASH-IF awarded Grand Challenge on Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP at IEEE ICME 2017

Hong Kong, July 12, 2017

Real-time entertainment services such as streaming video and audio are currently accounting for more than 70% of the Internet traffic during peak hours. Interestingly, these services are all delivered over-the-top (OTT) of the existing networking infrastructure using the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). The MPEG Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (DASH) standard enables smooth multimedia streaming towards heterogeneous devices.

The aim of the DASH-IF Grand Challenge on Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP at IEEE ICME 2017 is to solicit contributions addressing end-to-end delivery aspects that will help improve the QoE while optimally using the network resources at an acceptable cost. Such aspects include, but are not limited to, content preparation for adaptive streaming, delivery in the Internet and streaming client implementations. A special focus of 2017’s grand challenge will be related to virtual reality applications and services including 360 degree videos.

We received the following submissions, which have been evaluated by DASH-IF members:
  • "Content Preparation and Cross-Device Delivery of 360° Video with 4k Field of View Using DASH" by Louay Bassbouss, Stefan Pham, Stephan Steglich, Martin Lasak
  • "A Hybrid P2P/Multi-Source Quality-Adaptive Live-Streaming Solution for high end-user's QoE" by Joachim Bruneau-Queyreix, Mathias Lacaud, Daniel Negru
  • "Efficient content preparation and distribution of 360VR sequences using MPEG-DASH technology" by Cesar Diaz, Julian Cabrera, Marta Orduna, Lara Munoz, Pablo Perex, Narciso Garcia
  • "Optimal Viewport Adaptive Streaming for 360-Degree Videos" by Zhimin Xu, Lan Xie, Xinggong Zhang, Han Hu, Yixuan Ban, Zongming Guo
The winner will be awarded  €750 and the runner-up €250.

Each submission has been presented at IEEE ICME 2017 within an oral session, which was attended very well. We've also seen interesting demos after all submissions have been presented.


This year's award goes to the following papers:

WINNER: "A Hybrid P2P/Multi-Source Quality-Adaptive Live-Streaming Solution for high end-user's QoE" by Joachim Bruneau-Queyreix, Mathias Lacaud, Daniel Negru
C. Timmerer (left), Joachim Bruneau-Queyreix (middle), Axel Becker-Lakus (right)

RUNNER-UP: "Optimal Viewport Adaptive Streaming for 360-Degree Videos" by Zhimin Xu, Lan Xie, Xinggong Zhang, Han Hu, Yixuan Ban, Zongming Guo
C. Timmerer (left), Zongming Guo (middle), Axel Becker-Lakus (right)

We would like to congratulate all winners and hope seeing you next year at IEEE ICME 2018.

Photos by Cigdem Turan (PolyU, Hong Kong).

Sunday, June 25, 2017

DASH-IF awarded Excellence in DASH award at ACM MMSys 2017

Taipei, Taiwan, June 21, 2017.

The DASH Industry Forum Excellence in DASH Award at ACM MMSys 2017 acknowledges papers substantially addressing MPEG-DASH as the presentation format and are selected for presentation at ACM MMSys 2017. Preference is given to practical enhancements and developments which can sustain future commercial usefulness of DASH. The DASH format used should conform to the DASH-IF Interoperability Points as defined by It is a financial prize as follows: First place – €1000; Second place – €500; and Third place – €250. The winners are chosen by a DASH Industry Forum appointed committee and results are final.

Viswanathan (Vishy) Swaminathan 

This year's award goes to the following papers
1. Ahmed H. Zahran, Jason J. Quinlan, K. K. Ramakrishnan, and Cormac J. Sreenan. 2017. SAP: Stall-Aware Pacing for Improved DASH Video Experience in Cellular Networks. In Proceedings of the 8th ACM on Multimedia Systems Conference (MMSys'17). Taiwan, Taipei, June 2017.
Vishy (left), Ahmed H. Zahran (right)
2. Jan Willem Kleinrouweler, Britta Meixner, and Pablo Cesar. 2017. Improving Video Quality in Crowded Networks Using a DANE. In Proceedings of the 27th Workshop on Network and Operating Systems Support for Digital Audio and Video (NOSSDAV'17). Taiwan, Taipei, June 2017.
Jan Willem Kleinrouweler (left), Vishy (right)
3. Mario Graf, Christian Timmerer, and Christopher Mueller. 2017. Towards Bandwidth Efficient Adaptive Streaming of Omnidirectional Video over HTTP: Design, Implementation, and Evaluation. In Proceedings of the 8th ACM on Multimedia Systems Conference (MMSys'17). Taiwan, Taipei, June 2017.
Vishy (left), Christian Timmerer (right)

We would like to congratulate all winners and hope seeing you next year at ACM MMSys 2018.

Tuesday, June 6, 2017

QoMEX'17 Review: Down the Rabbit Hole - Immersive Experience

During QoMEX 2017 in Erfurt, Germany we had a special session entitled "Down the Rabbit Hole" which I have introduced here already. The papers of the special session will appear soon in IEEEXplore but together with my co-organizers of this special session -- Raimund Schatz and Judith Redi -- we also wanted to run the special session in a special way. Therefore, we asked authors to prepare concise and thought-provoking paper presentations (~15min incl. Q&A -- paper title, presenter, picture, key words below) to save some time for a panel discussion. Surprisingly, it worked very well and the special session turned out to be worthwhile and informative. In order to keep the audience connected and involved we posted a single slide of all panelists (i.e., paper presenters) which was shown all the time (see below).

The discussion was centered around the question "what is your understanding of a fully immersive experience" which revealed interesting aspects and finally resulted in the main challenge how to quantify immersive experience. In this context, Mr. T. (only those who've been at QoMEX and in this session know why he is called Mr. T. -- join us next time and we will explain you what's behind) raised an interesting idea to interpret the Turing test for immersive experience. That is, fully or truly immersive experience is achieved if a human is no longer aware that she/he actually interacts with cyber-physical systems. I think this statement sets the bar (high) but definitely worth to consider.

Finally, I'd like to thank all presenters/panelists for an amazing special session at QoMEX'17 but the journey is not yet over. I'll be attending ACM MMSys and IEEE ICME presenting/discussing various aspects of immersive experiences; also at the MPEG meeting in Torino which will be dedicated to standardization aspects of immersive experiences.

Also big big thanks to the conference organizers, the team around the general chair Alexander Raake
(TU Ilmenau, Germany), for hosting such a wonderful event! Hope seeing you all next year for QoMEX 2018.

Feel free to test/play around with Bitmovin solutions for VR/360-degree streaming and if you have a RICOH THETA S check out my blog post how to setup a live streaming session.

Come and join us on the journey down the rabbit hole which eventually will lead to wonderland.

Tuesday, May 30, 2017

MPEG news: a report from the 118th meeting, Hobart, Australia

The original blog post can be found at the Bitmovin Techblog and has been updated here to focus on and highlight research aspects. Additionally, this version of the blog post will be also posted at ACM SIGMM Records.

MPEG News Archive
The entire MPEG press release can be found here comprising the following topics:
  • Coded Representation of Immersive Media (MPEG-I): new work item approved and call for test data issued
  • Common Media Application Format (CMAF): FDIS approved
  • Beyond High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC): call for evidence for "beyond HEVC" and verification tests for screen content coding extensions of HEVC

Coded Representation of Immersive Media (MPEG-I)

MPEG started to work on the new work item referred to as ISO/IEC 23090 with the "nickname" MPEG-I targeting future immersive applications. The goal of this new standard is to enable various forms of audio-visual immersion including panoramic video with 2D and 3D audio with various degrees of true 3D visual perception. It currently comprises five parts: (pt. 1) a technical report describing the scope of this new standard and a set of use cases and applications; (pt. 2) an application format for omnidirectional media (aka OMAF) to address the urgent need of the industry for a standard is this area; (pt. 3) immersive video which is a kind of placeholder for the successor of HEVC (if at all); (pt. 4) immersive audio as a placeholder for the successor of 3D audio (if at all); and (pt. 5) for point cloud compression. The point cloud compression standard targets lossy compression for point clouds in real-time communication, six Degrees of Freedom (6 DoF) virtual reality, and the dynamic mapping for autonomous driving, cultural heritage applications, etc. Part 2 is related to OMAF which I've discussed in my previous blog post.

MPEG also established an Ad-hoc Group (AhG) on immersive Media quality evaluation with the following mandates: 1. Produce a document on VR QoE requirements; 2. Collect test material with immersive video and audio signals; 3. Study existing methods to assess human perception and reaction to VR stimuli; 4. Develop test methodology for immersive media, including simultaneous video and audio; 5. Study VR experience metrics and their measurability in VR services and devices. AhGs are open to everybody and mostly discussed using mailing lists (join here Interestingly, a Joint Qualinet-VQEG team on Immersive Media (JQVIM) has been recently established with similar goals and also the VR Industry Forum (VRIF) has issued a call for VR360 content. It seems there's a strong need for a dataset similar to the one we have created for MPEG-DASH long time ago.

The JQVIM has been created as part of the QUALINET task force on "Immersive Media Experiences (IMEx)" which aims at providing end users the sensation of being part of the particular media which shall result in a worthwhile, informative user and quality of experience. The main goals are providing datasets and tools (hardware/software), subjective quality evaluations, field studies, cross- validation including a strong theoretical foundation relevant along the empirical databases and tools which hopefully results in a framework, methodology, and best practices for immersive media experiences.

Common Media Application Format (CMAF)

The Final Draft International Standard (FDIS) has been issued at the 118th MPEG meeting which concludes the formal technical development process of the standard. At this point in time national bodies can only vote Yes|No and editorial changes are allowed (if any) before the International Standard (IS) becomes available. The goal of CMAF is to define a single format for the transport and storage of segmented media including audio/video formats, subtitles, and encryption -- it is derived from the ISO Base Media File Format (ISOBMFF). As it's a combination of various MPEG standard it's referred to as an Application Format (AS) which mainly takes existing formats/standards and glues them together for a specific target application. The CMAF standard clearly targets dynamic adaptive streaming (over -- but not limited to -- HTTP) but focusing on the media format only and excluding the manifest format. Thus, the CMAF standard shall be compatible with other formats such as MPEG-DASH and HLS. In fact, HLS has been extended already some time ago to support 'fragmented MP4' which we have demonstrated also and it has been interpreted as a first step towards the harmonization of MPEG-DASH and HLS; at least on the segment format. The delivery of CMAF contents with DASH will be described in part 7 of MPEG-DASH that basically comprises a mapping of CMAF concepts to DASH terms.

From a research perspective, it would be interesting to explore how certain CMAF concepts are able to address current industry needs, specifically in the context of low-latency streaming which has been demonstrated recently.

Beyond HEVC...

The preliminary call for evidence (CfE) on video compression with capability beyond HEVC has been issued and is addressed to interested parties that have technology providing better compression capability than the existing standard, either for conventional video material, or for other domains such as HDR/WCG or 360-degree ("VR") video. Test cases are defined for SDR, HDR, and 360-degree content. This call has been made jointly by ISO/IEC MPEG and ITU-T SG16/Q6 (VCEG). The evaluation of the responses is scheduled for July 2017 and depending on the outcome of the CfE, the parent bodies of the Joint Video Exploration Team (JVET) of MPEG and VCEG collaboration intend to issue a Draft Call for Proposals by the end of the July meeting.

Finally, verification tests have been conducted for the Screen Content Coding (SCC) extensions to HEVC showing exceptional performance. Screen content is video containing a significant proportion of rendered (moving or static) graphics, text, or animation rather than, or in addition to, camera-captured video scenes. For scenes containing a substantial amount of text and graphics, the tests showed a major benefit in compression capability for the new extensions over both the Advanced Video Coding standard and the previous version of the newer HEVC standard without the new SCC features.

The question whether and how new codecs like (beyond) HEVC competes with AV1 is subject to research and development. It has been discussed also in the scientific literature but lacks of vendor neutral comparison which is difficult to achieve and not to compare apples with oranges (due to the high number of different coding tools and parameters). An important aspect which always needs to be considered is one typically compares specific implementations of a coding format and not the standard as the encoding is usually not defined, only the bitstream syntax that implicitly defines the decoder.

Publicly available documents from the 118th MPEG meeting can be found here (scroll down to the end of the page). The next MPEG meeting will be held in Torino, Italy, July 17-21, 2017. Feel free to contact us for any questions or comments.

Tuesday, May 23, 2017

The Evolution of Programming Languages and Computer Architectures over the Last 50 Years

Prof. Niklaus Wirth

June 12, 2017, 16:00
Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt, E.2.42

Please register via

We recount the development of procedural programming languages and of computer architectures, beginning with Algol 60 and the main frame computers, and discuss the influence of the former on the latter. We point out the major innovative features of computers, and the main characteristics of languages. What makes languages high-level, and what caused their cancerous growth and overwhelming complexity? Are we stuck with the monsters, or is further, sound development still possible?

© Peter Badge/Typos1 – in coop. with HLFF - all rights reserved 2017
Niklaus Wirth is one of the most influential computer scientists ever. He is known first of all for his works in programming language and compiler design, but he has also contributed a lot to hardware and operating system design and software engineering in a general sense. He spent most of his working time as professor at the ETH Zürich, but spent also several years in outstanding research institutions in the USA (e.g. Xerox PARC) and Canada.

His best known programming language is Pascal. Pascal was published at the end of the sixties, at a time, when on the one side widely used but theoretically poorly founded languages (such as Fortran and Cobol) and on the other hand theoretically exaggerated and practically hardly useful languages (such as Algol-68) dominated the scene. Wirth succeeded with Pascal to find the happy medium. This was the first programming language 1) incorporating the sound theory of safe programming (as defined by E.W. Dijkstra, C.A. Hoare and others, including Wirth himself); 2) applying strict, static type checking; 3) providing a flexible system of recursive type constructors. In other words: Strictness, regarding syntax, but freedom in expressing semantics. In later languages Wirth adapted the concept of encapsulation and information hiding (Modula and Modula-2), and object-orientation (Oberon and Oberon-2) in a novel, clean and simple way. Oberon was not only the name of a language, but also of an extremely compact, but extendible operating system, enabling – among others – maybe the first efficient garbage collector of the world. He designed also a hardware architecture, best fitting for the requirements of code generation from compilers (the Lilith architecture) becoming thus a pioneer for later RISC architectures. He also designed a simple and compact language for hardware design (LOLA). The leading principle in all his work was the slogan taken from Albert Einstein: “Make it as simple as possible – but not simpler!”

Niklaus Wirth published over 10 books and numerous scientific papers. He was for a few years the most quoted computer scientist at all. He received practically all awards a computer scientists can get. First of all, the Turing Award, which is often called “the Nobel prize for computer scientists”. He is a member of the order Pour le mérite for science and art and of the German Academy of Sciences, he received the IEEE Computer Pioneer Award, the Outstanding Research Award in Software Engineering von ACM Sigsoft – and a lot of others. Niklaus Wirth is an excellent speaker; humble, wise and with a lot of sense of humor. This makes his talks for an unforgettable event for this audience. The Institute of Information Technology at the Klagenfurt University is highly honored and pleased that he accepted our invitation.

Monday, May 22, 2017

TNC17 presentation: Over-the-Top Content Delivery: State of the Art and Challenges

Over-the-Top Content Delivery: State of the Art and Challenges

Christian Timmerer (AAU/Bitmovin)

Abstract: Over-the-top content delivery is becoming increasingly attractive for both live and on-demand content thanks to the popularity of platforms like YouTube, Vimeo, Netflix, Hulu, Maxdome, etc. In this tutorial, we present state of the art and challenges ahead in over-the-top content delivery. In particular, the goal of this tutorial is to provide an overview of adaptive media delivery, specifically in the context of HTTP adaptive streaming (HAS) including the recently ratified MPEG-DASH standard. The main focus of the tutorial will be on the common problems in HAS deployments such as client design, QoE optimization, multi-screen and hybrid delivery scenarios, and synchronization issues. For each problem, we will examine proposed solutions along with their pros and cons. In the last part of the tutorial, we will look into the open issues and review the work-in-progress and future research directions.

TNC17 Networking Conference - The Art of Creative Networking

Please feel free to contact me for details and/or I'd be happy to meet you at TNC17.

Friday, May 19, 2017

QoMEX'17 Special Session 2: Down the Rabbit Hole – General Aspects of VR and the Immersion Experience

QoMEX 2017
May 31 – June 2, 2017 in Erfurt, Germany

Picture from


  • Raimund Schatz, Austrian Institute of Technology (AIT), Austria
  • Christian Timmerer, Alpen-Adria-Universität (AAU) Klagenfurt, Austria
  • Judith Redi, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands


Currently, we witness a proliferation of new products and applications based on immersive media technologies – exemplified best by the current “VR hype” causing a flurry of new devices and applications to hit the market place. The potential of immersive media is large, however, investigation and application of QoE in this context is still in its infancy as many issues are not yet understood. Consequently, the multimedia-quality community faces new, rapidly moving research targets, resulting in the following overarching questions:
  • What is the interplay between concepts like Immersion, Presence, Interactivity, Multimedia Quality and User Experience in the context of emerging immersive applications and technologies?
  • What should be the role of QoE in this domain?
  • How to characterize, assess, model and manage QoE for immersive media-rich applications?
This special session aims to bring together researchers and practitioners to present and discuss quality-related issues and topics in the field of immersive media. The goal is to highlight the major challenges the multimedia quality community should target in this dynamically evolving domain and identify ways forward to addressing them effectively.

All QoMEX'17 special sessions can be found here.

Schedule & Format

Thursday, June 1, 2017, 13:00 -- 15:00
  1. Chenyan Zhang, Andrew Perkis and Sebastian Arndt, Spatial Immersion versus Emotional Immersion, Which is More Immersive?
  2. Conor Keighrey, Ronan Flynn, Siobhan Murray and Niall Murray, A QoE Evaluation of Augmented and Immersive Virtual Reality Speech & Language Assessment Applications 
  3. Raimund Schatz, Andreas Sackl, Christian Timmerer and Bruno Gardlo, Towards Subjective Quality of Experience Assessment for Omnidirectional Video Streaming
  4. Ashutosh Singla, Stephan Fremerey, Werner Robitza and Alexander Raake, Measuring and Comparing QoE and Simulator Sickness of Omnidirectional Videos in Different Head Mounted Displays
  5. Yashas Rai, Patrick Le Callet and Philippe Guillotel, Which saliency weighting for omni directional image quality assessment?
  6. Evgeniy Upenik, Martin Rerabek and Touradj Ebrahimi, On the Performance of Objective Metrics for Omnidirectional Visual Content
The special session format will be as follows:
  • 15min slots per presentation (12-13min talk, 1min for 1 question, 1-2 min time for speaker change)
  • 30min for panel discussion

Panel Discussion

For the panel discussion, our aim is to address the following questions:
  1. What is your understanding of a fully immersive experience (provide a definition or propose keywords to characterize immersive experiences)?
  2. Which aspects should the QoMEX community focus on?
  3. What can we learn and which knowledge can we re-use from the 3D and HDR research experiences?
... and we'd like to solicit also input from the community at large. Therefore, we setup a shared Google doc which is available here, asking for YOUR input:

Come and join us on the journey down the rabbit hole which eventually will lead to wonderland.